On August 5, 2007, President Bush signed the "Protect America Act of 2007." The Act amends the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 such that surveillance directed at a person reasonably believed to be located outside the United States no longer requires a government application to, and order issuing from, the FISA Court. Under the Act, communications can be monitored (i.e., intercepted) in real time or reviewed after receipt and storage, for example, in the case of email. The Act provides procedures for the government to issue directives to providers to provide data or assistance, for the government to seek an order to compel provider compliance from the FISA Court, and for the recipient of a directive to seek relief from the FISA Court from an unlawful or overly burdensome directive. Under the Act, providers receive cost reimbursement and full immunity from civil suits for compliance with any directive.